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Both in Bologna and in Paris the amalgamation of the several
" universities " into one university was the outcome of a conflict
with the local authorities. In Bologna, the question at issue was
quite simple in character. The students of law were for the most
part foreigners, many of them of considerable age and of good
social standing in their own countries. They found themselves
compelled to uphold their own interests as against both the
professors and the city council of Bologna; and for greater
strength they combined their national " universities." By the
middle of the Thirteenth Century the various groups had united
into two " universities "—a Citramontane and an Ultramontane
" university "—each with a rector chosen from its own members,
whom every student had to swear to obey under penalty of being
declared perjured and treated as outcast. Early in the next
century the two " universities" had practically become one.
Though there were still two rectors, the " universities " had
common statutes and met in one congregation. Ultimately they
became the governing body in the university. The members of
the numerically weaker faculties of arts and medicine were as
much under their jurisdiction as their own members, though
having no part in them.

The opposition in Bologna between the student " universities "
and the city was not serious. Most of the claims of the " univer-
sities " to self-government were admitted by the city without
question, and they willingly enforced the decisions of the rectors
against their own students. The main ground of disagreement
concerned the attempts of the rectors to assert their authority over
citizens in legal cases in which students were involved. On this
point both parties stood their ground until the matter was settled
by the decline of the " universities " two centuries later. A more
serious contention was that raised by the migration of the students
to set up a studium in some other city, when for any reason they
were dissatisfied in Bologna. As the medieval universities had no
permanent buildings and little corporate property, this practice
was common in all the centres of study throughout Europe.
(Cambridge, for example, was raised to university status by a
migration from Oxford in 1209, and Oxford itself was greatly
benefited twenty years later by a migration from Paris.) After
such a migration in 1215, the city threatened to banish any rector
who attempted to bind the students by oath to go elsewhere at his